Psych Assessment - Class Blog

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Psych Assessment -- Class Blog

INSTRUCTIONS:

Each week of class, with the exception of midterms and final exam weeks, you will be responsible for adding a post to our class blog, below.

For your posts, search the web to find something relevant to our topic for that week, an article or web page that is both educational and would likely be of interest to your classmates.

Create a title for your post, and include the web link (make it an active link by clicking the link icon above). Bold the title of your post.

Here is a sample blog post:


Finger length correlated to bullying. I found this article, Science fingers natural bullies, published by The Sunday Times, Britain. It reports on research that suggests that "Childen whose ring fingers are much longer than their index fingers are more likely to be hyperactive and bullying," and relates this to prenatal testosterone level. I found the article very interesting -- that you could learn something about someone's (likely) personality simply by looking at their finger length. But, I then wondered why finger length would be influenced by prenatal testosterone levels... (more discussion...). -- Student ID: 4872, 9/14/2006



As noted above, be sure to add the last 4 digits of your student ID (or, if you wish you can use your name if anonymity isn't important to you). Add the date as well.

Add your new post to the top of our blog (not to the bottom). Very important: after you write your post (or copy and paste it here) you must scroll to the top of this page and click on the "Save" button, or your post will be lost.

If you wish, you can also discuss and respond to the posts of others.

Keep a copy of all of your posts to one file on your home computer (keep pre-pending to your posts). and print out a copy of all of your posts since the last midterm. Turn in a printout of your posts to me the day of the midterms and the final. You will receive up to 5 points for each paper you turn in (not for individual posts).

Each week I will pick one or two blog posts that I find most interesting and relevant to review and discuss in class. The authors of those posts will get an additional 2 points.

The blogs will be divided into 3 sections by each third of the class (before the first midterm, before the 2nd midterm, and before the final). You will be responsible for reading these materials before tests -- a couple of questions on midterms and the final will come from the posts for that thrid of the class.


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BLOG POSTS, Fall 2006 Click on "Floating Toolbar" above. Add your post here at the top, and, when you re done, remember to click on "Save."







The article, Practical concerns for the use of assessment instruments in a clinical treatment setting, written by Anne Geller, discusses the use of assessment tools when dealing with drug use. It is important to provide the patient with appropriate tests and tools to diagnose him/her and help his recovery process. In the intake interview, it would be better to find tests that can assess various drug use not just alcohol. Many of the tests used in the clinical setting don't account for other drug use and are therefore worthless in that specific situation. Furthermore, the time and money needed to administer the test and score them is very much and become very expensive for treatment centers and clinics. Because of these limitations, clinicians must be very careful in what assessment tools they choose to to implement. The tests would be more useful if they could provide a correlation with a specific problem and a treatment. If the tools had a known relationship with treatment strategies it would be an easier process in these centers or clinics. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0847/is_n3_v15/ai_12666887/pg_2 4821, 11/15/06

The article, Does absence make the heart grow fonder? Work-related travel and marital satisfaction, studies whether marital satisfaction and work travel are correlated. There was a significant correaltion, but researchers also state that more research needs to be done in this area. Also, work travel is only one small area that affects marital atisfaction. Men traveled significantly more time than women and spent about 50% more time away from the home than women. Also, if there were children than the women was more likely to travel less and stay at home more often than the man. This article is limited however because it may not be a representative sample and there is no causal direction yet. Also, there could be many other 3rd variable contributing to marital satisfaction. This article was very interesting because it emphasizes the different gender roles that still exist today and how women are more often confined to staying at home than their husbands are. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_2002_May/ai_94407539/pg_1 11/21/06, 4821 Women and Relationships http:www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_2001_Oct/ai_85176432/pg_9 is where you can find the article titled The role of network support and interference in women's perception of romantic, friend, and parental relationships.// Much research has been conducted on the association between network support and relationship quality in women. There are limitations in this research, however, and this present study seeks to address them. Extensive measures of support and interference were utilized, and data was gathered about females' perceptions of network reactions from both parents and friends. The study also examined how both support and interference were associated with three specific relationships: parent/daughter, friend/friend, and romantic. The authors, Laura Bryan, Jacki Fitzpatrick, Duane Crawford, and Judith Fischer, hypothesized that romantic love would be positively related to support from friend and parent relationships and negatively related to interference from parents and friends. Romantic love was assessed using Rubin's Love Scale. The authors found data that suggested parent support for the romance was associated with both greater parent--daughter satisfaction and more romantic love, but friend support was not found to be directly associated with romantic love. Instead, there was an association with friendship satisfaction. Since no association between a friend and romantic love was found, the article suggests that the relationship between the two may be more complex and needs to be further researched. Student ID: 1824, 11/21/06

Predicting 2-year marital satisfaction from partner's discussion of their marriage checkup. The following article observed whether marital interactions of couples after a marriage checkup predicted marital satisfaction 2 years later. The study also looked at whether couples who received recommendations to receive therapy would actually seek out therapy. It also looked at marital distress following the checkup remained stable over 2 years. The results showed that the affective tone a couple showed in their interactions predicted later marital satisfaction. Couples who received recommendations for further treatment looked for therapy after but only by the wives. The study also showed that changes in marital distress are self-sustaining. 11/21/06 4365.


I found the article "[http:http:www1.umn.edu/mmpi/Reprints/computer%20adaptive%20testing--%20apa.html| A Real Data Simulation of Computerized Adaptive Administration of the MMPI]" on cnn.com. Psychologists are becoming very interested in the role of computerized adaptive testing in the future of personality assessment. In this study, researchers have compared data for the MMPI simulated by a computer with data obtained from two personnel-selection samples and two clinical samples. The countdown method was modified for testing to determine the usefulness, in terms of item administration savings, of several different test administration procedures. For each of the four samples, significant item administration savings was acheived. However, the clinical samples required administration of more items to achieve accurate classification than the personnel-selection samples. The use of normative item endorsement frequencies was found to be just as effective as sample-specific frequencies for the determination of item administration order. This article refers directly to several topics that we have been discussing in class recently. November 20, 2006. 5479.

The development and psychometric investigation of the university student depression inventory In this 90-003&loginpage=login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site the University Student Depression Inventory (US DI), a measure of depressive symptoms of students, was assessed for reliability and validity. This study was done to develop the US DI as an adequate measure of student depression and to examine its psychometric properties. This test was developed by university students and counselors. Third year psychology students generated 125 items that were reviewed by professional psychologists and added to by counselors. Participants were 322 students from Queensland University Technology in Brisbane, Australia. In addition to the US DI, the Life Satisfaction Scale and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale were administered to the participants. The US DI was found to be a valid and reliable measure of depression on university students. Such a measure is important because one of the most common reasons why students visit their Student Psychological Center is for depression. Depression affects motivation and can lower grades. A test that can adequately identify this would be important in these cases, particularly if the student did not know if he/she was depressed. Student ID: 4959, 11/20/06


Validity Assessment of A New Compatibility Test For Couples. This article by J. Donald Lawson discusses the results of the study that he conducted to assess validity on "The Compatible Lifestyle Questionnaire" (CLQ), a new compatibility test for couples. The results of the study showed the CLQ to be highly valid. Lawson states, "It is probably the most valid compatibility test available today.” The CLQ consists of seven scales, including personality, communication and conflict resolution, sexual and romantic style, financial style, coping style, interests, and family values. It yields compatibility scores on each of the seven scales, as well as an overall composite compatibility score. Scores on the CLQ were correlated to long term relationship satisfaction. Results of the study also indicated that compatibility scores on each of the seven CLQ scales significantly predicted relationship satisfaction for both women and men. A stronger overall relationship was found between the composite compatibility score and relationship satisfaction for both women and men than was obtained on any of the individual scales. Compatibility scores on the communication and conflict resolution scale were the best predictors of relationship satisfaction for men, and the second best predictor for women. Couples rated family values as the area where they experienced the least disagreement and as the area where they believed themselves to be most compatible. Student ID: 6090, 11/20/06

:: Personality Testing and the Assessment Center: Incremental Validity for Managerial Selection http://0-sas.epnet.com.linus.lmu.edu/externalframe.asp?tb=0&_ug=sid+7092AF87%2DF854%2D4E7E%2D866C%2D1F59C8FC90A2%40sessionmgr7+F4AB&_us=SLsrc+ext+or+Date+034D&_usmtl=ftv+True+137E&_uso=hd+False+db%5B0+%2Dpdh+33B8&fi=pdh_apl816746_AN&lpdf=true&pdfs=1231K&tn=&tp=APC&es=cs%5Fclient%2Easp%3FT%3DP%26P%3DAN%26K%3Dapl816746%26rn%3D1%26db%3Dpdh%26is%3D00219010%26sc%3DL%26S%3DL%26D%3Dpdh%26title%3DJournal%2Bof%2BApplied%2BPsychology%26year%3D1996%26bk%3DS&fn=1&rn=1&bk=S&EBSCOContent=ZWJjY7zl7XePqK9rveX1a6Gmr4GPprWFpKi5fKKWxpjDpeu66OXrrJ3j4LTdpOSz3unzAAAA&an=apl816746&db=pdh& In this article, the researchers are examining the validity of personality tests in predicting the performance of their managers, as compared with the standard predicting tool, the Assessment Center (AC). According to researchers, the Assessment Center test is quite expensive and therefore, companies are looking for less expensive ways to choose effective managers. This study compares the two tests to one another to see if personality testing can do a better job, if not just as good of a job of managerial prediction. In the end, personality was shown to be equally effective in predicting ability, but no significant evidence was shown for personality being more effective. Overall, the study was helpful in showing an alternative to the AC for testing effective managerial positions. 1142 11/19/06

::Predicting 2-year Marital Satisfaction:: In this article by Christina B. Gee, the marital satisfaction of couples was assessed after 2-years. This study hypothesized that the changes in marital distress would be self-sustaining. The Marriage Checkup, or MC was an intervention program used in the current study to “attract and improve the marital health of established at-risk couples and to prevent relationship deterioration by providing a marital health assessment and motivational feedback”. This study consisted of 29 married couples whose average length of marriage was 11.9 years. There were two components to the MC, the first used advertisements to attract married couples that may not believe they are distressed and also advertised a professional assessment of a couple’s marriage. The second component of the MC included questionnaires and an interview. The results of the study revealed that the husband’s pessimism has predictive potential within the marriage. Results also found that they “may be able to predict couples’ long-term response to an intervention from how they talk about it afterward”. The results were also consistent with the hypothesis claiming that the changes in marital distress would be self-sustaining. Student ID: 4221 11/19/06

This [http:httpwww.spcomm.uiuc.edu/caughlin/jpsp2000.pdf| article] entitled How does Personality Matter in Marriage? examined trait anxiety, interpersonal negativity, and marital satisfaction. The common belief is that trait anxiety such as negative affection and neuroticism leads to marital dissatisfaction. This is a longitudinal study that was done over a 13 year period that examined in which trait anxiety measured by newlywed couples consistently lead to marital negativity and dissatisfaction. Participants were drawn from 168 couples who took part in the PAIR Project as newlyweds. The authors concluded in thei discussion session that "This study demonstrated that the association between trait anxiety and marital satisfaction is quite complex." They concluded that interpersonal processes (such as marital communication and emotional contagion) are important to the connection between personality an marital satisfaction. Student ID: 1930; 11/19/2006

This article entitled Compatibility and the Development of Premarital Relationships was a study to emperically identify the links between social homogony, similarity in leisure activities and role preferences and how they related to premarital relationships. The test group was 168 working and middle class couples that were married for the first time. People were considered more compatible if they had more similar interests in leisure activities and role preferences. Based on those two values, couples tended to be able to better match themselves with an opposite sex partner than if they were randomly paired. Leisure activities and role preferences are also important becuase they are factors in determining how an individual rates certain aspects of his or her relationship (such as love and ambivelence). Student ID: 2016, 19 November 2006

I found the article #The Relationship Between Personality Testing and Enhanced Employee Productivity[http:httpwww.gneil.com/info/workplacepersonality#Pre-Employment%20Testing%20for%20Personality%20Traits| The Relationship Between Personality Testing and Enhanced Employee Productivity] , on the G.Neil Personality Tests website, through CNN.com. The article investigates the potential advantages and disadvantages of using the Workplace Personality Profile (WPP) prior to hiring new employees. Researchers argue that using such a measure could decrease a company's employee turnover rate, and help place employees in positions that highlight their strengths. They argue that people who enjoy their work are happier, more motivated, and more productive in life. The WPP not only asseses a potential employee's skill level, but also gauges his/her suitability for a particular environment or position based on personality traits. It measures seven distinct personality traits, including reliability, assertiveness and self-confidence. Such tests can also be useful in determining whether a candidate will mesh well with a particular team of employees and whether or not they will have the confidence to handle job requirements without too much supervision. I thought this article was interesting in conjunction with our first speaker, who used personality assessment measures to help repair work environments and teams. Student ID: 5479 11/15/06

I found this article, [http:httpwww.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4149/is_5_40/ai_n15863304| Integrating validity theory with use of measurement instruments in clinical settings], on findarticles.com. It suggests that the current approaches used by health service researchers are not only endless but also these concepts do not transfer from the psychometric theory to the real-world context of clinical measurement. Also they emphasize collecting and weighing the evidence before a conclusion is reached on it’s validity! Therefore, the authors of this article proposed adopting a more systematic process for gathering and examining validity evidence, which they write about in the form of a decision rubric. I thought the article was right in trying to come up with a systematic process that would guide investigators through levels of validity instead of the researchers trying to pick from the many theoretical frameworks that exist to establish validity. Student ID:8208 11/15/06

Success rates for new drugs entering clinical testing in the United States. This article deals with the sucess rate for approval of new drugs in the United States. Data from the CSDD (Center for the Study of Drug Development was used to gather data from pharmacutical firms regarding research abandonment and approval and how that may be able to predict future sucess rates. The results showed that prior testing on the part of the firms is key to success rates for the druges entering the United States. Drugs that were first tested or licensed abroad had a higher success rate than those that were first tested in the United States. Success rates generally increased with the passage of time and with certain factors taking becoming more important than others. For example economics and safety became more important while efficacy decreased in important. However, the researchers to do not say why this is important or why the change occured. Student ID: 2016, 15 November 2006

Association of fake-good MMPI-2 profiles with low Beck Depression Inventory scores - Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2. This article talks about the way in which women are prone for depression following childbirth. Maternal depression has been associated with early mother-infant problems and with emotional and behavioral problems in children. Thus, since postpartum depression seems to have such a negative effect on mother-infant relationships and development of the child, it is important to identify mothers who exhibit depressive symptoms. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is the most frequently used self-report instrument for recognizing postpartum depression. Although the BDI is sensitive and specific in detecting depression there is hardly any research examining low BDI scores. Mothers with extremely low scores on the BDI exhibit more depressed behavior with face-to-face interactions with their infants than do mothers with high scores. Thus, this article focused was to look at what was going wrong with the low BDI scores by administering the MMPI-2 in order to detect if mothers with low BDI were “faking good.” The results showed that low BDI scores may be indicative of a fake-good profile, along with high K scale scores (defensiveness). The article showed that individuals with extremely low scores on depression screening instruments should require further assessment. Student ID: 4365 11/15/06 Development and testing of the Inner Strength Questionnaire In this [http:httpwww.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0MJU/is_1_10/ai_102025137| article] researchers sought to examine how women’s inner strength can be measured through the new instrument called the Inner Strength Questionnaire (ISQ). Using this questionnaire, women assessed their inner strength on cognitive, mental, social and physical levels. This study measured 5 hypothesized dimensions of inner strength using a sample of 154 women with major chronic health conditions. This study was important because the results show that this new instrument of clinical testing, ISQ, can help treat women with chronic illnesses. Health care providers can use this test to help assess the type of support women need during chronic illness. Student ID 3912 11/15/06

Evaluating the Latent Structure of the MMPI-2 F(p) Scale in a Forensic Sample: A Taxometric Analysis http://0-web.ebscohost.com.linus.lmu.edu/ehost/pdf?vid=5&hid=8&sid=d9354e4f-98f5-46f7-8fb5-47ae5c588578%40SRCSM2 What I discerned from this article was study's attempt to measure the MMPI's abilitiy to expose participants that might feel the need to embellish and exaggerate responses on the test. In order to catch these types of exaggerated responses, researchers developed what they called the Infrequency Psychopathology Scale F(p) by identifying items that were endorsed by less than 20% of the examinees from two separate psychiatric samples. Developing this scale would potentially expose the fakers so that answers that examinees with true symptoms of psychopathology would respond in high percentages while fakers would respond in high frequency to other appropriated questions, thereby eliminating the possibility for that type of error. ID:1142 11/15/06

Performance and private speech of children with ADHD while taking the Tower of Hanoi Test. This [http:httpwww.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0902/is_5_33/ai_n16752954| article] discusses the use of the Tower of Hanoi Test with the cognitive functions of children with ADHD. The purpose of their research was to find any other differences between the major subtypes of ADHD with their cognitive responses to treatment. Four executive functions that were studied in these children were nonverbal woking memory, verbal working memory, self-regulation of affect, and reconstitution. These four functions were used as a guide to interpret children's behavior while taking to TOH. One major finding to support their assumption was about private speech, an "externalized thought that is addressed to the self rather than to a particular listener". Children with ADHD were found to use private speech frequently, although it was less mature compared to others. They also found that "children with ADHD did not exhibit more externalized task-ireelevant speech than did controls". Student ID: 2110 11/15/06

Should Therapists Seek Their Own Counseling? According to this article by James P. Krehbiel, the answer is yes! Krebiel suggests that a therapist cannot expect someone to make behavioral changes if they are not fully committed to the counseling process. With that in mind he states,"How can one be expected to take the risk of changing if the client’s own counselor is reluctant to have his issues scrutinized?" It is his opinion that no counselor should be licensed without having experienced the counseling process themselves. Later in his article he also mentions the issues of counselor burnout, transference, and counter-transference, and how those elements can play a role in the counseling process. Transference is the process whereby a client projects feelings onto the therapist. These feelings could be ones of anger, mistrust, sexual feelings, or approval needs. Sometimes it is difficult for the counselor to maintain a sense of detachment from a client’s projected feelings and may ultimately lead to unnecessary stress.Counter-transference refers to the process when a counselor identifies with the patient’s problems in a way that is not helpful to the therapeutic alliance. The counselor may be experiencing issues similar to the patient and counselor’s feelings may infringe on the counseling process, ultimately creating a bias. Student ID: 9060 11/11/06

::Adapting the MMPI for use in assessing late adolescents in Trinidad and Tobago:: In this article, Campbell Phillips assesses the effectiveness of the MMPI, a widely used assessment on the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Phillips wanted to assess the readability and discriminative power of the MMPI within this culture. In order to test the effectiveness of the MMPI a sample of residents from the islands were asked to rate how difficult it was to understand the items on the MMPI. The tests of the subjects were scored in two different ways and in order to assess the temporal stability of the test a small goup of subjects were asked to take the MMPI once more, a week after the originial adminstration. The findings from this study revealed that the MMPI is a useful test to assess “late adolescents in both the mental health and criminal justice systems in the Repulic of Trinidad and Tobago. Student ID: 4221 11/8/06

Relationship Between Type-A Behavior Pattern, Aggression, and Suicide in Italian University Students.The purpose of this article is to examine the correlation between Type-A Behavior Pattern (TABP) and suicide in university students. By doing so, researchers aimed to create a predictive model based on participants' scores on aggression. Researchers used a total of 340 University students to completed the MMPI-2 Type-A Scale (TPA), the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), and a questionnaire "evaluating suicidal ideation and attempts." Between the TPA and the AQ, correlations were moderate to strong. Those students with Type-A behavior scored high on aggressiveness and showed a high percentage of suicidal ideation. Given the moderate to strong correlations in the resutls, the research suggests that a predictive model can be created to produce rules for classifying TABP students at a higher risk of suicide. Student ID: 8155 11/13/06

Iron Status and Depression in Premenopausal Women: An MMPI Study - Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0GDQ/is_2_25/ai_55240979/pg_1 Located in the Behavioral Medicine journal of 1999, the authors of this article aim at testing whether low iron status is associated with symptoms of depression in women of child-bearing age. They were specifically looking for an association between iron levels in the blood and depression scores on the MMPI, or the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Self-described mood states also played a part in the possible association between low iron status and depression in women of child-bearing age, ranging from age 20 to 45 in this study. Participants were 384 women from North Dakota who were not currently pregnant. They were asked to complete the MMPI. Examination of individual results for participants with the lowest iron status did not consistently support a relationship between iron deficiency anemia and symptoms of depression. Even mild iron deficiency anemia, characterized by low hemoglobin as well as low ferritin, was not consistently related to depressive symptoms in these women. In addition, there is no suggested association between anti-depressant medication and iron status according to the results of this study. The authors conducted this study in light of the ambiguity of past studies on this topic, and have generally concluded the same result according to this data. It is suggested that future studies should assess the multidimensional syndrome of depression by using an array of converging measures. Student ID: 1824, 11/14/06

Persisting Reversed Clock Syndrome: Clinical Testing. The article mentions that the "reversed clock phenomenon results in the transposition of objects from one side to another." Its major creation consists of drawing a clock in reversal of clock numbers. This is possibly due to a stroke because in the event of a stroke, the cerebral network is disrupted. However, "this phenomenon usually regresses in a few days." The objective of the study was to report a case of reversed clock phenomenon with disorders that include a disruption in space representation and that did not regress spontaneously. These reasearchers used a case report method for their study, using a 67 year-old woman who was referred because of her headaches, and is associated with "gait disorder, visual field deficit and disturbance of space representation." The resuots showed that magnetic resonance imaging confirms two right cerebral infarcts mainly located in the parieto-occipital region. A week after she had her stroke, clinical testing confirmed the reversed clock phenomenon- "the patient placed the hands of a clock in the opposite direction of what was specified." When she went home, she got lost at when she tried to locate rooms, and she configured their placement in opposite directions. Rehabilitation sessions were some help to these these manifestations. As a result, they concluded that even though it usually improves in a few days, the reversed clock phenomenon can persist longer. For rehabilitation, localization exercises may be helpful.Student ID: #8155, 11.20.06

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'POSTS BELOW WERE COVERD ON MIDTERM 2 -- THEY WILL NOT BE COVEREDON THE FINAL EXAM'Casting to type: more companies are using personality tests to assess job candidates and develop new hires. [http:findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3870/is_9_20/ai_n6100810| http:findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3870/is_9_20/ai_n6100810]The article discusses the advantages and benefits of persoanlity testing in businesses and companies. More and more businesses are using testing in the hiring process. It is cost effective and very beneficial in finding individuals who are best suited for the job and have the most skills necessary to succeed in the position. The most common tests used are the Meyers-Briggs and the Rorschach. People are also beginning to use handwriting analysis more often. However, some of the disadvantages of using personality testing is that it can lead to legal issues, such as lawsuits if there is an invasion of privact with the questiosn asked. Furthermore, the person being tested might correctly assume what type of personality is desired and can take the test to get those results that correspond with that personality. I think testing is a good idea as long as the normal hiring process is still being used. October 29, 2006 Student ID:4821

The Use of Personality Measures in Personnel Selection. This [http:http0-www.sciencedirect.com.linus.lmu.edu/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W4J-4JYKKT3-1&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F2006&_alid=480106279&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_qd=1&_cdi=6544&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000048964&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=945462&md5=d1da8bdd66e4da278140bc34329ffe1e| article] reviews and evaluates main trends that have contributed to the increasing use of personality assessment in personnel selection. Research on the ability of personality to predict job performance is covered, including the Five Factor Model of personality versus narrow personality measures, meta-analyses of personality–criterion relationships, moderator effects, mediator effects, and incremental validity of personality over other selection testing methods. Personality and team performance is also covered. Main trends in contemporary research on the extent to which applicant “faking” of personality tests poses a serious threat are explicated, as are promising approaches for contending with applicant faking such as the “faking warning” and the forced-choice method of personality assessment. Finally, internet-based assessment of personality and computer adaptive personality testing are synopsized. October 29. 2006. Student ID: 3144


The relationship between masculine gender role stress and psychological adjustment: a question of construct validity?

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_n7-8_v34/ai_18585415/pg_2 This article discusses the implications of masculine gender role stress and how there may be little construct validity. This stress often characterizes men that feel stress when in situations that reuire emotional expressiveness, feeling intellectually inferior, feeling physically inadequate, experiencing performance failure, and being subordinate to women. However, the validity is being questioned because it does not demonstrate different negative outcomes for men and women. There is no effect of a moderating variable that womena ndmen rate them selves differently in MGRS. Participants filled out a questionnaire about MGRS and the results showed no significant gender differences or proof of a moderating variable. Ocotber 15, 2006. Student ID: 4821

Minority test takers make significant gains on SAT: but achievement gap between White, minority students persists

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DXK/is_16_21/ai_n6355356 This article discusses how minority groups have improved with scores on achievement tests, specifically the SATs. Each year, the average for verbal and math are increasing. However, there is still a distinct difference in the performance of minorities and Caucasian students. More minorites are taking the test which is possibly why the average scores are going up. Also, when in college, students are reportedly taking more math and science classes than english or composition classes. In the verbal and math section of the SAT, white students receive the highest scores followed by asian, asian merican, and pacific islander. October 8, 2006. Student ID: 4821


On the Usage of "Modified" Personality Traits Measures in Consumer Research. This article was concerning the testing procedures used to test the personalities of consumers. Previous tests had not used good reliability or validity, so these experimenters aimed at creating a test that had both of those attributes. For their modified test, the researches tested three personality traits thought to be correlated to the shopping habits of individuals: Sociable, Relaxed, and Internal Control. Particpants answered questions on a five point scale to access the degree to which they possessed each of the measured personality traits. The main point of this study was not to actually gage the personalities of shoppers, but to modify a previously used test, in regard to reliablility and validity which the researchers were able to accomplish. 29 October 2006, Student ID: 2016 http:www.jstor.org/view/00935301/di007459/00p00757/0?searchUrl=http%3awww.jstor.org/search/BasicResults%3fhp%3d25%26si%3d1%26Query%3dpersonality%2btest%26xc%3don&frame=noframe&currentResult=00935301%2bdi007459%2b00p00757%2b0%2c7F&userID=9df2d641@lmu.edu/01cce4406600501b05371&dpi=3&config=jstor Personality testing and police selection: Utility of the 'Big Five' in this article http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3848/is_200006/ai_n8923826 researchers investigate the predictive validity of the NEO Personality Inventory on performance of police officers. They compared the validity of narror middle-order traits or facet scales of the NEO to the higher order traits or the "big five" (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness.) They further examined whether the big five added significant incremental validity to a cognitive ability test (PI/Pq higher test.) These tests were administered to the police recruits during the first month of training. Researchers found that Conscientiousness and the cognitive ability test had the highest correlation to overall training performance. They also found that a great majority of narrow middle-order traits such as competence, self-discipline, and trust had significant correlations with performance. This study provides evidence to the argument that the NEO Personality Inventory is a credible and valid instrument to use to predict police performance. The prediction becomes even more significant when paired with a cognitive ability test. Student ID: 4959, 10/29/06 Personality Tests for the design of Management Information Systems http://www.jstor.org/view/00251909/di012745/01p0033l/0 A field study is done in which the reactions to modified MIS(Management Information Systems) designs are observed. They hope is to create an MIS system most effective for the personality of the system's user. In this article MIS systems are modified with respect to the psychological dispostion/personality of the user, and then checked for their level of validity and reliability. Student ID: 1142 10/29/06 Reassess personality tests after court casehttp://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3495/is_9_50/ai_n15627796 This brief artcile talks about the decision made by the 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals made about personality testing, which is that using a screening device before an offer of employment violates the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). For employers this means that given personality tests that have nothing to do with the job at hand, should be reconsidered. The article talks about how employers need to start looking at other options rather than testing that can be used to evaluate job candidates. However, with other articles stating that personality testing now decreases costs later, what will this mean to employers who have depended on these tests for hiring purposes? Student ID: 4365, 10/29/06

Why do people worship celebrities? Well after reading the [http:http0-web.ebscohost.com.linus.lmu.edu/ehost/detail?vid=15&hid=115&sid=154a67f6-7b25-4849-83b0-771f5f9929d2%40sessionmgr102| article]Narcissism and celebrity , it seems that it may have something to do with their personalities. In the study conducted by Young, M. and Pinsky, D., it was found that celebrities in the fields of acting, reality tv, comedy and music are significantly more narcissistic than the average individual. According to the results of the NPI (Narcissistic Personality Inventory), celebrities scores of narcissism were even higher than MBA students, regardless of how long they had been celebrities. Perhaps their self-love, makes them seem more confident, and allows people to look up to them, as they surely look up to themselves. At the end of the study the researchers suggest that the correlation between celebrity and narcissism may be due to personality traits in people before entering the industry or perhaps why they are drawn to it. An interesting point in the study was also that females had higher rates of narcissism than men. This study shows that personality assessment is useful not only for psychological reasons, but for the benefit of popular culture, the entertainment industry, and those who have to work for celebrities. 10/29/06 student id- 3912


Personality counts: personality assessments are being used in new ways throughout the employee life cycle. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3495/is_11_50/ai_n15856709/pg_1 Within this article from HR Magazine by Eric Krell, personality assessment tests are discussed in detail. The use and application of them in employment and hiring is the main focus of the article. Personality assessments are now a familiar part of a company's fabric. Though these kind of assessments tests are nothing new, how, when, and where they are applied is different. Most often they are used to ensure a good fit between the position and the applicant. Companies are trying to increase confidence in knowing that a certain postion will fit an applicant's behavioral strengths. HR professionals are making use of and applying assessment results in various areas, specifically that of recruiting, hiring for diversity, onboarding (helping new hires reach a comfortable relationship with existing employees), conflict resolution, coaching, leadership development, and staffing needs assessment. Companies continue to stress that personality assessments are not being used to weed out applicants and do not look for only one type of personality pattern. Rather, they use them to '"find diamonds in the rough" and ensure a good fit. According to the article, assessments are usually really powerful; they take conflict away from being personal and make it about personality alone. Student ID: 1824, 10/29/06


Casting to Type: More Companies Are Using Personality Tests To Assess Job Candidates and Develop New Hires. In this article, Kris Frieswick discusses how many employers are using psychological tests that involve personality tests to ensure that the hires they make are a good fit for the job description and also with the people who they will be working with. Some of the tests Frieswick mentions in the article that the Myers-Brigg Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment, the Rorschach, and even handwriting analysis are all types of test that some companies uses, and could have an impact on whether a company would hire a certain job applicant or not. PepsiCo, Sara Lee, and Hewlett-Packard have all used such tests in hiring or management training. Frieswick states, "Companies that use them swear by their ability to dig beneath such issues as credentials and experience and get at the basis of a person's character, aptitudes, and weaknesses - information vital to assessing whether an applicant can succeed in a given position. Student ID: 9060, 10/29/06

SSRI Treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder: In this article, Thomas Rhine looks at SSRI treatments for borderline personality disorder. SSRI's are selective seratonin reuptake inhibitors and are said to reduce aggession and impulsivity. Rhine conducted a study with physically healthy women between the ages of 18-50, who were recruited through communiy health centers, the internet, and newspaper advertisements as the control group. He also had 38 women with borderline personality disorder. The results were statistically significant for the effects of SSRI's on the women with the personality disorder. Before this study the correlation between imulsive/aggressive behavior and SSRI's have only been demonstrated with caucasion men. Now the medicinal findings can be correlated with women as well with the findings that support SSRI treatments of rapid mood shifts in femals borderline patients. Student ID: 1930 10/29/2006

::Personality Counts- Psychological Tests Can Help Peg the Job Applicants Best Suited for Certain Jobs:: In this article, Steve Bates investigates the use of personality tests in job hiring. I found this article to be relevant not only to the lecture topic: personality tests, but also to the guest speaker we had this past Thursday. The article explains CEOs’ emerging use of personality tests to help screen potential employees by looking for the attributes that would contribute to success on the job. Personality assessments were viewed with great skepticism but are used often as a helpful tool in HR departments. The article explains that there is scientific evidence that personality tests are helpful and useful in determining which job candidates are best for the job. Some of the tests used by HR are intelligence, honesty, and management aptitude. Even though there are several personality tests available, the author explains that the HR professionals who administer and use these tests must first have an understanding of the test. Many of these HR professional lack a background in psychology so it may make it more difficult for the tests to be used properly. Thursday’s guest speaker, Dustin Reece, is therefore a well-qualified HR professional to administer tests as he does have a background in psychology, an understanding of the tests, and a high business aptitude. Student ID: 4221 10/28/06

Predictive Validity of the Graduate Record Examination advanced psychology test for grade performance in graduate psychology courses. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FCR/is_1_36/ai_85007765/pg_1 Daniel J. House and James J. Johnson wrote this article. It appeared in the College Student Journal in March 2002. The purpose of the study was to investigate the predictive validity of the GRE Advanced Psychology Test for students' grade performance in selected graduate courses. Because GRE scores are so often used in determining graduate admission, assessments of predictive validity of the GRE are not uncommon. Academic records for 236 graduate students already enrolled were were evaluated and data were collected for GRE scores, Experimental and Social subscores from the Advanced Psychology Test, and student grades from ten courses frequently taken by graduate students. Results from this study by House and Johnson suggests that GRE scores significantly correlate with grade performance in a number of graduate psychology courses, namely eight of them. Higher GRE scores were associated with higher course grades in each instance. This data is consistent with earlier studies. Previos research has also shown that restriction of range [in graduate programs] may be a factor that can negatively affect the correlation between test scores and grade performance. Therefore, further research is needed to assess the GRE for students in graduate programs that may differ from the one examined in this study. Student ID: 1824, 10/29/06

::Highly Experienced Applicants Often Get Screened Out Right Away, But They Shouldn’t Be Dismissed Out of Hand:: In this article by Susan J. Wells, the hiring of overqualified employees is discussed. Wells explains that the biggest fear among professionals in human resources departments is that the job will not meet the expectations of overqualified individuals and that they will be left unchallenged. As a result the overqualified employee may leave his or her current job if a better job opportunity comes along. Despite this fear, the article discusses the pros of hiring overqualified applicants. The over qualified employees are quick studies and can often save the company time and money that would be put toward training new employees. Another pro to hiring overqualified employees is that they can help others develop and can help fill future leadership needs. There are also cons to hiring overqualified applicants. They are often seen as a risk since they may be bored with their job and quit. Also overqualified employees are often too expensive and are likely to intimidate others. The article suggests that careful assessment of potential employees is required and explains steps that HR can use to assess whether an overqualified applicant is right for a job. Finally, the article also suggests that “HR look at three predictors of a candidates success on the job: the ability to do the work, the ability to work well with others and motivation.” Student ID: 4221 10/18/06

Constuct Validity in Psychological Tests. This article discusses the major uses of validation within psychological testing. The major types discussed in class, such as construct and criterion validity are outlined here as well. This article goes into depth regarding the uses of validity and how useful they are. One major point is to be taken from this article is that while validation is necessary for acessing the usefullness of a particular test, but it is also necessary to test the usefullness of the validation test as well. The main purpose of the paper was to discuss the best uses of validation test, especially contruct validity and the implications that result from the information gathered when validaiton tests are used. Especially important are the implications that result from negative evidence, and needs to be done in regard to future research on the same subject. 15 October 2006, 2016

Test Validity - Employment Testing. In this [http:httpwww.employment-testing.com/validity.htm| article], the researchers at Saterfiel and Associates present data about the validity of employment assesment tests. After reviewing with readers five different types of validity that a test should have and the importance of each, they discuss feasable hiring approaches and the appropriate context for psychological testing. They present three options for using assesments: establish successful employee standards by 1. conducting a concurrent validation by job classification, 2. answering job-related questions on the requirements of the job, 3. use of standards comprised of successful people in jobs across the United States. The researchers insist that validation studies do not guarantee accuracy, and present common misconceptions about them. Furthermore, they purport that we look into the background of the development of each validation study that we acknowledge and ensure the use and knowledge of statistics. The authors of this article do a great service to the corporate community by relaying - in layman's terms - the reasoning behind and importance of validation studies in everyday life. October 15, 2006. 5479

An Examination of the Validity of English-Language Achievement Test Scores in an English Language Learner Population. In this article, <A HREF="http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3722/is_200504/ai_n15715707/pg_8/">article</A>, researchers study the validity of the English-language Stanford Achievement Test on approx. 1700 ELL and former ELL students in the 4th and 10th grade. Researchers were interested in determining: the proficiency of the English-language SAT and how it affects the validity of the results, how home-language literacy affects validity of the results, and if the English-language SAT produced valid results when taken by former ELL students. Both the English-language SAT and Spanish-language SAT were distributed to the students and both reading and math were analyzed. Math was paid close attention to because it is not as dependent on language. Researchers found that the English-language SAT is not a valid test of content-area knowledge. On the Spanish-language test, ELL students scored as many as 6 items more out of 48 total items relative to taking the English-language test. This is important because there is a big problem if tests are not representative of an ELL's students academic knowledge and must be addressed by the education system, especially if these are the types of tests evaluated by universities as decisions for acceptance. Student ID: 4959, 10/15/06

Comparing the validity of structured interviews for managerial-level employees: Should we look to the past or focus on the future?article This article looks at the construct validity of situational (SI) versus past-behaviour (PBI) structured interviews for predicting job performance in managers. Since current research have concluded conflicting results, the goal of this study was to give a clearer picture as to the criterion-related and incremental validity of the SI vs. PBI in prediction managerial job performance, and to examin relationships between the SI and PBI in terms of cognitive ability, personality and work sample tests in order to help explain any observed differences between the criterion-related validity. The hypothesis was that both the SI and PBI would show significant relationship with managerial job performance. However, the results showed that the PBI was more highly related to manager-relevant cognitive ability measures, and personality traits than was the SI. October 15, 2006. 4365


Reliability and Validity Testing of the READI for Air Force Nurses. The article by Theresa Lynn Dremsa tested the reliability and validity of the Readiness Estimate and Deployment Index (READI) Revised for Air Force Nurses Short Form. The READI was designed as a self-report instrument to assess the level of readiness of army nurses for deployment. Dremsa states,“Confirmatory factor analyses did not support the six readiness dimensions as originally hypothesized. Redundant items and items and items with low factor loadings were deleted. A few items in the leadership and administrative support dimension and the group integration and identification dimension were reworded.” The current article reports on the psychometric characteristics of the revised 40-item instrument with a new sample. The purpose of this study was to evaluate reliability and validity psychometric characteristics of the READI. Student ID: 0906, 10/15/06

Verification of the Profile of Mood States-Brief: Cross-Cultural Analysis. In this article clinical psychologists work to assess validity across mood- tests given to different ethnicities. 69 American, English speaking adults, and 115 Korean adults were tested using the Profile of Mood States-Brief (POMS-B). Their levels of depression are measured on these scales, which were assessed for their validity. After the TMD (total mood disturbance), was calculated, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be high for both enthicities.While the mean for total mood disturbance was a bit higher for Americans than Koreans, the POMS-B test appears to be ready to use in both countries, due to the 96% content validity. This test will help assess the problems in mood that people in the US and now, other countries, are experiencing. This study helped to show how although people of other cultures are different, the problems they have and the way they are assessed can be similar.Student ID 3912. 10/15/06

::Traits Associated With Personality Disorders and Adjustment to Military Life: Predictive Validity of Self and Peer Reports:: In this article by Edna R. Fiedler, peer ratings and self-report measures were used to assess traits and characteristic features of psychological disorders to predict an individual’s adjustment and performance as recruits in the Air Force. Although peer ratings appear to be more accurate in making predictions, self-report measures do provide the unique and subjective view of that individual’s own experience. Significant differences between self reports and peer ratings do not give evidence that one method is more valid than another but that they both provide different perspectives in their analysis. The current study hypothesized that both the self report and peer reports of “personality problems would be associated with the probability of a successful adaptation to military life.” Student ID: 4221 10/14/06

Standardized Testing: Friend or Foe of gifted students? This [http:http0-web.ebscohost.com.linus.lmu.edu/ehost/detail?vid=7&hid=112&sid=752ff0b7-b195-4110-97c6-bce95e6f9fc3%40SRCSM2| article] investigated the effects of state standardized testing on the teaching practices of teachers and then the effects of their practices on their gifted students' motivation levels and attitudes towards school. The study included those from all possible types of socioeconomic backgrounds, classes, races, etc. so as to obtain results from a wide variety of people. Results from a nation wide survey were obtained and these results suggested that the perceptions teachers have of standardized testing and their students has a direct effect on their classroom practices and the way that they teach. These findings basically imply that these teachers are not interested in personalizing their classroom techniques to their students' needs, rather they teach in a "one-size-fits-all" style where students are not getting individualized attention that they need and deserve. Student ID: 3144 10/8/06.


It's time to reevaluate admission tests - from our perspective. This article http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0HJE/is_3_2/ai_79961302 talks about the way in which people are becoming worried about the results of standardized testing and the pressure it puts on students. The article talks about the ways in which some students are taking AP courses, have good grades, work hard and yet still get a low SAT score. Parents with the means understand how important the SATs are and thus place their child in prep classes, but what about for the students with no way of having that type of help? The article debates whether the SAT is a good predictor of being admitted into a university, and that there are other things to consider instead of just a score, such as persistence, resiliency, focus, confidence and goal setting. Many people and companies are beginning to realize that there are other qualities that are more important in students than being able to memorize a bunch of words and pick right answers from a set of options. student ID: 4365. 10/8/06.

Testing Internal Consistency and Construct Validity During Evaluation of Performance In a Patient Simulator. This [http:httpwww.anesthesia-analgesia.org/cgi/content/abstract/86/6/1160| article] is a prime example of the necessity of ensuring the validity of ALL test items. After reviewing a patient simulator test used on hospital residents and staff to determine anaesthesiology capabilities, the researchers determined that four of the simulation's ten items were not valid and should therefore be removed from the test. Cronbach's coefficient alpha went from .27 / .28 up to .66 upon removing the four invalid items. This article is a crucial bit of evidence that testing standards are of utmost importance in all sorts of fields, and is not limited to psychological testing. Ensuring the validity of a test is one of the most important - yet often overlooked - tasks of a test publisher / user. 5479. October 8, 2006

The GRE: Perceptions of International Students. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FCR/is_2_39/ai_n14703163/pg_2 This article by Emily E. Mupinga and Davison M. Mupinga is titled Perceptions of International Students toward the GRE. Many are familiar with the GRE. It is an aptitude test used by college to grant admission for students applying to graduate school. It is thought to reflect one’s intelligence or the capacity to learn. It may further predict grade performance in graduate courses. The purpose of this study was to assess the attitudes of international students toward the GRE--is it biased toward certain groups? Issues with content and context, structure, and purpose of the exam were specifically assessed within this study, and data were collected through both formal and informal interviews. The students participating in the study were from three different countries. Some aspects of the GRE were found to be biased in this study, specifically in the area of context and content. The verbal section was the hardest. According to students, “Test developers and users do not seem to understand and to consider the thinking process of anyone whose first language is not English.” Many words can be ambiguous in different languages, and the speed that the GRE demands can hinder an individual’s ability to appropriately translate the meaning of a statement. It was suggested that other factors besides traditional criteria should be taken into account when determining an international student’s admittance into graduate school. Student ID: 1824, 10/8/2006


Aptitude is not enough: How personality and behavior predict academic performance. In this article, [[ Aptitude is not enough:How personality and behavior predict academic performance]] the researchers examined how the Big Five personality traits (openess to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism,and agreeableness) predict academic achievement. Academic achievement looked at GPA, course performance, and class attendance. Researchers predicted that the Big Five would be better predictors of academic achievement than the SATs. Participants were 300 full time undergraduate students. The NEO Five Factor Inventory, form S was administered to partcipants to measure personality traits. Attendance was tracked and course performance was determined in terms of the percentage of points earned on class assignments. GPA and SAT scores were self-reported. Reasearchers found that out of the five personality traits, conscientiousness predicted three academic outcomes (GPA, course attendance, and course performance)over SAT scores. This article provides school administrators a helpful look at what they can target to increase not only academic achievement, but also class attendance. If programs are constructed that aim to build conscientiousness in students, this could provide students who are particularly low in conscientiousness the support they need to do well in school. Student ID: 4959 10/8/06

Creativity Testing. In this article,[http:httpfindarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2602/is_0001/ai_2602000168| article] , creativity testing is differentiatied from Intelligience Quotient (IQ) tests. I thought it was interesting when the author said the people with higher IQ scores don't necessarily have high creativity scores. Creativity tests are also called divergent thinking tests. According to the author, "divergent tests are generally evaluated based on the number and variety of answers provided; the originality of the answers; and he amount of detail they contain (also known as elaboration)." Currenly there is a test called the Creativity Assessment Packet that is used for people ages six through eighteen and measures traits including imagination, curiousity, risk-taking, and complexity. There are other tests that measure other areas of creativity, including the Scales for Rating the Behavior Characteristics of Superior Students (SRBCSS). This specifice test, according to the author,has "95 questions by which teachers evaluate students in such areas of motivation, leadership, art, music, dramatics, and both precise and expressive communication." I thought it was interesting that these specific areas of creativity can be measured and used by elementry, middle school, and high school teacher to place gifted students in the right classroom setting that will reflect and encourage their creative abilities. Student ID: 1930 10/08/2006


Lets Cut Back on Standardized Testing. In this[http:httpwww.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0838/is_n54/ai_8283181| article], Monty Neill discusses the issues regarding standardized testing. This topic has become very controversial. Neill acknowledges in this article if standardized testing is actually valid. One factor of these tests is that they are asking for different type of skills from those being tested. When we were in elementary school and we learned a new spelling word for the week, our teacher didn't say the word and then write down four choices and have us choose which was right. We were taught to listen to the word, spell it back out, or write it down five times. We practiced a certain type of skill. When we take these standardized tests that are suppose to distinguish us from others and see how we will do in the future, we aren't being asked to spell out words. Neill stated, "The problem is one of validity: Does a test measure what we think it is measuring? More specifically, the problem is construct validity: How well does the test measure the intellectual ability it claims to measure? In other words, does the exam correlate with "academic potential" or "competence" or "reading" or some other underlying construct?". These tests are seen to be very weak in elementary aged children and many children are being misplaced. In another article I read it brought about the issue that at an early age if children can't do a task, instead of working with them the teachers will just move onto another topic, especially with reading. If teachers are not going to start helping from the beginning how are children suppose to do well on these standardized tests that our society has placed so much emphasis on. Student ID: 2110 10/8/06

Perceptions of International Students toward GRE. In this article, Emily E. Mupinga and Davison M. Mupinga question the validity of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) as a predictor of performance in graduate school, especially for international students. The authors conducted a study to see if this standardized test should continue to be highly regarded by admission boards as a standard measure of performance, or if they should focus more on undergraduate GPA, recommendations, interviews, special talents, etc. In preliminary research it was noted that most institutions use the results in a "top-down selection approach emploting minimum standards for consideration" even though it has been proven that the scores only have a modest correlation in predicting success in graduate school. This study is based on a theory that the evaluation presented by the GRE is culturally biased, especially the verbal section for those who do not have English as their first language. Although Mupinga and Mupinga acknowledge that some form of standardized testing is necessary for admission into graduate school, they conclude from this study that the GRE is an inadequate and inaccurate choice. Student ID: 5348 10/8/2006

Aptitude Test for Gifted Elementary School Students. This article by Pamela Paek examines the development and preliminary analysis of a new mathematical test targeted specifically for elementary student with significantly high mathematical ability. The test is known as the Stanford Education Program for Gifted Youth (EPGY) Mathematical Aptitude Test (SEMAT). This test was developed because no other test was designed to examine this specific population. The article goes on to discuss problems with existing tests that are typically used to assess young children with gifted mathematical ability. Since many assessment tests are targeted towards students of average ability, the gifted students' scores are clustered at the top. Because of this pattern, Peak states that, "gifted students are not assessed for their full range of ability, and the distribution of their scores is limited to the top few percentiles of the general population. The main problem with the use of current achievement tests is the lack of ability to discriminate among the top performing students." The next step into solving this problem would be to have an individually administered intelligence test with a higher ceiling so that students are less limited and can take items beyond their academic level. The SEMAT attempts to accomplish this. Student ID: 9060 10/7/06

::Achievement Versus Aptitude in College Admissions:: In this article by Richard C. Atkison, it is argued that when applying to college, students should be chosen based on their success in learning rather than on the concept of aptitude. Atkison explains that the SAT I is an aptitude test that looks at verbal and math abilities aside from what is learned through coursework in high school. The SAT II however is an achievement test that looks solely at the mastery in a specific subject. Arguing against the use of aptitude tests, the author goes on to explain that using “standardized tests that have a demonstrable relationship to the specific subjects taught in high schools” would allow for a more accurate idea of a student’s abilities apart from their high school grades. For Atkison, achievement tests are the better more fair tests to use because they “can be used to improve performance, they are less vulnerable to charges of cultural or socioeconomic bias, and they are more appropriate for schools because they set clear curricular guidelines and clarify what is important for students to learn.” The most important reason for the use of achievement tests rather than aptitude tests are they give students hope that a college education is possible for anyone with the talent and drive to do well. Student ID: 4221 10/5/2006

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THE POSTS BELOW WERE COVERED ON THE FIRST MIDTERM. THEY WILL NOT BE COVERED ON THE 2nd MIDTERM, OR FINAL EXAM

The Most Important Type of Intelligence. Deficiency in Emotional Intelligence with Sex Offenders. The article,[http:scholar.google.com/url?sa=U&q=http:www.genos.com.au/PDF/Deficits_in_EI.pdf| Deficits in emotional intelligence underlying adolescent sex offending] , was found in the Journal of Adolescence by Nicole Moriarty, Con Stough, Patrick Tidmarsh, Darren Eger and Susan Dennison. Usually the ability to understand one’s emotional states or emotional problems is a good indicator of healthy mental functioning. The mental ability model of emotional intelligence was used in this study since research has shown that emotional intelligence is different from standard analytical intelligence. The study hypothesized that male adolescent sex offenders will report deficits in emotional functioning compared to adolescent non offenders. These differences between different groups of adolescents may be insightful regarding emotional development in adolescents, especially those who engage in inappropriate sexual conduct. A series of one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were performed. The adolescent sex offenders had a higher mean item total and in general found it harder to be sociable, assertive, and supportive, were more aggressive and open and less caring and dependent when compared to a control group of adolescents. However, the two groups only significantly differed on the too aggressive factor, with sex offenders reporting higher aggression than the control group of adolescents. The present investigation also found that adolescent sex offenders were alexithymic, although the control group also recorded high scores on this scale. This finding suggests that deficits in experiencing and expressing emotions might be a characteristic of adolescents in general, although perhaps more pronounced in adolescents who commit sex offences. Student ID: 8208, 10/01/06.

Emotional Rescue. Studies Show Links Between Emotional Intelligence and Risk for Heart Disease This article written by Janet Webb (2001), reviews the research that has been completed stating that learning to properly deal with depression and anger can significantly reduce the stress on your heart and also increase your lifespan. Learning healthy ways to express feelings can make a dramatic difference to cardiac health. A ten year study of men and women with depression and no signs of cardiac problems was also conducted and at the end of those ten years, 16 percent of the women had died from heart disease compared with 46 percent of men. The way that men and women perceive their environment can also have an effect on their cardiac health. Men were found to view their environment with a more hostile attitude and it was also found that their blood levels of heart-damaging homocysteine were 30 percent higher than in women's. Homocysteine has been proven to damage the protective layer of cells inside artery walls. Student ID: 3144, 9/27/06

Intelligence testing fails to gauge intelligence. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4196/is_20040106/ai_n10932311 This article written by Phillip Chard, a psychotherapist and author, discusses the actual value and usefullness of intelligence tests, specifically tests such as the SAT. He argues that our society has become so centered around these tests that the goal of education is slowly becoming centered on teaching students how to do well on these tests. Chard believes that as a society we need to refocus and teach students so that they learn information instead of just learning how to succeed on these tests. Students are being taught to care more about numbers and GPAs and test scores than actually learning. Chard also discusses how intelligence test don't actually test intelligence, but instead only determine how successful a student is at taking tests. He questions whether these intelligence tests are actually beneficial to our society and educational system. We are becoming too dependent on these tests and losing sight of the learning process and are more concerned with "image rather than essence." I completely agree with Chard in this article and believe that universities and organizations are too concerned with test scores instead of the student's actual performance in the past and present. I think intelligence tests do measure intelligence to a certain extent, but not nearly as much as the weight that is being placed on them to determine decisions for any group of people. Student ID: 4821, 9/26/06


Sex differences in parental estimates of their children's intelligence. [[SexDifferences|LookSmart's FindArticles - Sex differences in parental estimates of their children's intelligence This study by Adrian Furnham (1998) examined British parents' perceptions of their children's intelligence. The subjects were shown a normal distributive of IQ curve and asked to estimate where they would place their own IQ level and then asked to estimate their children's IQ level. They were also asked the age of their children. The study found that the child's sex was a much stronger predictor of the estimated IQ than age. British parents- particularly male parents- believed that their sons had higher IQ levels than their daughters. The results of the subject's own IQ estimation revealed that females estimated their IQ level significantly lower than males did. The article considered cultural influences that account for female lower estimates of IQ. Women are socially pressured to hide their intelligence especially in the presence of males. I thought this article was interesting because it shows that parents hold biased views of their children based on gender. I think this study could be expanded by investigating the actual home environments of the subjects and see if parents IQ estimates of their children relate to how much school support or encouragement the child receives at home. Student ID: 4959. 9/25/06


Exploring adolescent emotional intelligence in relation to demographic characteristics http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_159_40/ai_n15950403/pg_1 This article is by Nicholas Harrod and Scott Scheer and focuses on adolescent EI. Because most studies on EI have been done on adult individuals, the participants in this study consists of high school students ages 16-19. The objective was to find if demographic characteristics such as age, sex, household income, mother and father's education, and location of residence are related with emotional intelligence and if the characteristics could predict future EI in adolescents. Though no connection was found between EI scores and age or location of residence, a significant relationship between EI and sex was. Male scores tend to go down in comparison to females. Father's education, along with sex, showed predictive properties. The higher a father's education, the higher the EI score. Ultimately, the authors concluded that demographics are linked to emotional intelligence and further research is crucial because EI is related to everyday social interactions. Student Id: 1824, 9/25/06

Intelligence and Deliquency: A Revisionist Review. This article was written by Travis Hirschi and Michael J. Hindelang. It discusses the correlation between juvenile deliquency and intelligence. It refutes that current view that the there is no connection between the two and shows that there actually is, when you control for SES and race. When IQ first started to be connected to deliquency, back before WWII, there was consistent evidence that someone who was involved in deliquent behavior would have an IQ lower that was lower than average. However as IQ tests improved in quality, so did the IQ of deliquents eventually settling at an average (deliquent) IQ of 92, leading researchers to conclude that there was no difference in the IQ of a deliquent. However this was not the view of all researchers and the question became whether or not 8 points below the average would make a difference in behavior. In the end, Hirschi and Hindelang conclude that the "no difference" conclusion was inaccurate and after controlling for SES and race they were able to show that IQ does indeed correlate with deliquent behavior. Student ID: 2016, 9/24/06

Mental Capabilities In the article Anatomy of analogy; the key to understanding our mental capabilities lies not in our answers to IQ tests but in how we arrive at them, James W. Pellegrino makes the argument that the best way to get a better understand of a person's mental capabilties, it is important to look at their decision making process rather than merely the answer in itself. In his research, Pellegrino focuses on two types of cognition: inductive reasoning and visuo-spatial reasoning. Inductive reasoning is defined as "the ability to take specific experiences and form general rules, ideas or concepts" whereas the visual-spatial is useful for navigating, hand-eye coordination, and solving problems in areas of physics and mathematics. In his article, Pelligrino breaks down the difference between the two areas and analyzes the many types of questions used to test these reasoning abilities. (Stud ID: 5348, 9/24/06)

Social Intelligence http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3495/is_5_51/ai_n16372636 This article by Karl Albrecht discusses that a low social intelligence is caused by toxic behaviors. I found this article interesting after watching the movie in class about emotional intelligence. Social Intelligence your reaction in a social enviornment and how you physically control your emotions. Albrecht believes that these toxic behaviors are a cause of selfishness and describes three different types. They are social halitosis, social flatulence, and social dandruff. Halitosis is insincere communication, flatulence is crude remarks that are consider to be disrespectful,and dandruff is taking advantage of others for your own purpose. He then goes on to say that there are 5 aspects to this type of intelligence. These five aspects are situational awareness, presence, authenticity, clarity, and empathy. Albrecht described another form of emotional intelligence stating that he believes it is all related to selfish acts. Stud ID: 2110 9/24/06


Emotional intelligence and student retention: Predicting the successful transition from high school to university. I found this article, [http:0-www.sciencedirect.com.linus.lmu.edu/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V9F-4KB10WC-1&_coverDate=11%2F30%2F2006&_alid=454997064&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_qd=1&_cdi=5897&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000048964&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=945462&md5=6f5f81fbe22d0f63821dbbc617d21cdc| http:0-www.sciencedirect.com.linus.lmu.edu:80/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V9F-4KB10WC-1&_coverDate=11%2F30%2F2006&_alid=454997064&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_qd=1&_cdi=5897&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000048964&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=945462&md5=6f5f81fbe22d0f63821dbbc617d21cdc] in Science Direct under the journal Personality and Individual Differences. The article studied how emotional intelligence is related to academic retention in college. The study looked at college freshman and their transition throughout their first year. The results showed that students who continued their studies had higher emotional intelligence than those who withdrew. It is important for students to know how to build relationships in college especially if they are far from home. Students must also learn how to modify their relationships with their parents and friends at home while they are away. Having higher levels of emotional intelligence helped students adjust better to college life, thus probably making it easier for them to focus academically. Student ID: 4365, 9/24/06.

"How to Raise Emotionally Intelligent Kids" The article, [http:httpamazines.com/article_detail.cfm/57789?articleid=57789&title=Ten%2CWays%2Cto%2CRaise%2CEmotionally%2CIntelligent%2CKids| Top Ten Ways to Raise Emotionally Intelligent Kids], written by Mark Brandenburg, is very interesting because it focuses on everyday events. The author teaches parents how to better deal with situations with their children such as getting ready for school and whining in a more effective way. He insists that beyond toddlerhood, children are ready to be coached and to begin making decisions for themselves. He reminds parents that children who develop high emotional intelligence at a young age will better function as adults and have more meaningful relationships with others. These children will also be better equiped to manage their own feelings and daily stresses in a healthy way. Furthermore, Brandenburg challenges parents to notice behaviors that are particularly frustrating to them and learn to resolve the underlying fear or tension that causes those particular behaviors to make them loose their cool. This article is geared towards cultivating healthy relationships between parents and children, which is useful to all of us. Sept. 24, 2006 (5479) Does Intelligence Really Predict Obesity? This article Intelligence test score, education level and obesity - Obesity written by Jytte Halkjer, was found at Findarticles.com. It was published in the Nutrition Research Newsletter on November 2003. This study investigated whether intelligence test scores and educational levels in young adult men have any association to their subsequent changes in weight and risk in developing obesity. The researchers divided the Danish men into two groups: a group with juvenile onset obesity and a non-obese group. Results were analyzed from the intelligence test via Borge Priens Prove 1953 test, while also looking at their education levels and BMI from baseline to the first follow-up. Education and intelligence were inversely related to BMI changes in both groups. However when they looked just at the intelligence score they did not find an association with the persistence of obesity in the obese group but strangely there still remained an inverse relationship between education and obesity. The highest educated group had less than half the odds of remaining obese compared with the lowest-educated group! Reasons for these findings may be that a high ability in intelligence testing and educational acheivement may be related to stronger expectations of a slender figure and for this reason a higher motivation for weight regulation or loss. This article was interesting since it may explain why doctors and other professionals tend to be physically fit. Maybe people who are well rounded like to not only workout their mind with learning but also like to keep their body healthy as well. Student ID:8208, 9/24/06.

Music and Intelligence. This article, Increase Your Intelligence With Music written by Steve Gillman, was found at Amazines.com. According to research studies that have been done so far, it is possible that music actually trains the brain for higher forms of thinking and can help you study and learn better. The article gives an example of results from a study at the University of California that tested this theory. Research on this topic of music and intelligence is still debatable and on going in the field. The article also mentions some products out there that attempt to target this very concept. So next time you feel like you need a little intelligence boost, consider listening to some music which could get brain wave and frequencies in the right mental state. The article suggests Mozart or any other type of classical music. Give it a try and see if it helps, who knows you might begin to feel smarter by the minute. Student ID: 9060, 9/23/06

::Improve Your IQ:: This article, Boost Your IQ Score Right Now, was found at Amazines.com. It discusses ways in which you can improve your intelligence. The article gives examples of several exercises one can do to improve attention and concentration. I found this article to be of interest because it includes helpful tips that can be beneficial to all of us as well face tests, quizzes, papers and other academic activities that require increased attention and concentration. Although the issue of whether or not one’s IQ can actually be increased is still debated, this article offers good self-help advice to increase our intelligence and help us be successful. Student ID: 4221, 9/21/2006

Social Intelligence [http:www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3495/is_5_51/ai_n16372636| http:www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3495/is_5_51/ai_n16372636]


Harkins , White and Utman experimented to find if goal-setting, self-evaluation and experimenter evaluation affected participant performance differently. They realized that while goal setting does not result from self- evaluation as it is shown to result from experimenter evaluation. Experimenter evaluation alone seems to be responsible for the higher performance of participants, as they are asked to outperform others. Given these instructions by the experimenter, they "use[d ] the stringent criterion as a yardstick against which they [could] compare their performance." (Harkins, S. G. et al). As it has been demonstrated in the past by other experiments, evaluation of the experimenters can strongly influence the performance of participants. The Milgrim Obedience Study for example, showed how particpants would shock others to a greater extreme when instructed by the "expert" or experimenter. While people would like to believe their performance and goals are not influenced by others, we can see that there is a strong correlation between motivated task performance and sources of evaluation. student id-5570 Motivating Task Performance

[http:psp.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/26/1/100?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=motivating+task+performance&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=HWCIT| http:psp.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/26/1/100?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=motivating+task+performance&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=HWCIT]]]

Construct Validity. An article on construct validity, The Student Readiness Inventory and the Big Five: Examinging social desireability and academic performance, by H.C. Peterson, A. Casillas, and S.B. Robbins, compared the power of personality in college students and how well it predicted GPA. Personality was tested using the Big Five Inventory measure (BFI) and the Student Readiness Inventory (SRI). The study included 468 students from 2-year and 4-year institutions. According to the results, both the BFI and the SRI were valid predictors of college GPA. The discovery of strong construct validity between the SRI and the BFI was evidential withinthe results by showing moderate and strong relaitons between the two assessments. Student ID: 8155, 10/8/06

http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0091-732X%281993%2919%3C405%3AETV%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P Evaluating Test Validity Here is the blog I found regarding Psych Test Validity. In this article they go into detail regarding the evolution of the modern understanding of test validity from its inception to current day. It examines the agreements as well as the disagreements among theories of practice. I thought this article was relevant due to the fact that we are discussing the concept of validity within psychological testing, as well as the ethical obligations that factor into creating a sufficient and effective test. Student ID 1142

Factorial Validity, Construct Validity, & Concurrent Validity. In the study, [http:0-web.ebscohost.com.linus.lmu.edu/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=7&sid=124cce60-c3cb-44f1-a435-eb23d6e96446%40SRCSM2| The Father Presence Questionnaire: A New Measure of the Subjective Experience of Being Fathered], conducted by E.M. Krampe and R.R. Newton, authors examined a child’s perception of the father by his or her experience with him. The researchers then worked with three domains to define perspectives of the father: “Relationship with the Father, Beliefs about the Father, and Intergenerational Family Influences.” After this step took place, the researchers tested the children’s perspective of the father by using a questionnaire, the Father Presence Questionnaire (FPQ), which consists of a Likert-scale ranging from one to ten. This scale examines the son's or daughter's experience with father. To establish construct validity of the FPQ, researchers used a “variety of analytic methods with a sample of adult children (N = 608) located in four regions of the United States.” Additionally, they established “the factorial validity of the FPQ by means of a second-order confirmatory factor analysis.” To demonstrate concurrent validity// of the FPQ, they used correlations with existing measures that assess family relationships. According to research findings, the FPQ is a reliable measure of capturing the child's perception of and experience with the father. Student ID #8155

Test Bias: Prediction of Grades of Negro and White Students in Intergrated Colleges http://www.jstor.org/view/00220655/ap050014/05a00060/0 I took a look at a very old study regarding testing bias in standardized testing(i.e. SAT) for college students of African-American and Euro-American ethnicity. Part of this study's aim was to see whether or not these tests were good predictors of college success across the racial spectrum. Also they wanted to see if the tests were biased towards a particular group and if so, in what manner is the test structure giving one particular group the upper hand. Although this study was done in 1968 it still poses some significant questions regarding validity and bias. Student ID#1142

Giving up and giving in: The costs and benefits of daily sacrifice in intimate relaitonships. In the following study, Giving Up & Giving In, researchers examined how "approach" and "avoidance" motivations for sacrifice in intimate relationships associate with personal well-being and relationship quality. Rersearchers conducted two studies: (a) The first investigated the nature of everyday sacrifices made by individuals within intimate relationships, and from there were measures of approach and avoidance motives for sacrifice developed; (b) the second study attempted to make and test predictions where both longitudinal and dyadic components were included. Results indicated that approach motives for sacrifice were positively associated with personal well-being and relationship quality. However, avoidance motives for sacrifice were negatively associated with personal well-being and relationship quality. Therefore, sacrificing for avoidance motives was hurtful to the relationships over time. Student ID# 8155

Externalizing Behavior In this article, http://0-web.ebscohost.com.linus.lmu.edu/ehost/pdf?vid=4&hid=115&sid=90a1caba-027d-4cf9-ba87-8ad1256729fa%40sessionmgr107, researchers examined the roles of emotion and behavior regulation and how these roles externalize behavior problems, specifically in elementary school children. By distributing the Emotion Regulation Checklist and the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire to children and their parents, researchers determined that emotion and behavior regulation are moderately related and both emotion and behavior regulation are linked to externalizing behavior. Furthermore, low emotion and low behavior regulation are significant predictors of externalizing behavior. These results interest me because I have a lot of experience working with children and have noticed these results myself. For example, children that do not regularly show emotion and have trouble controlling their behavior are usually the children that are the most disobedient towards authority figures. Student ID#6717